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Can some one direct me to a drawing that shows how to wire an op-amp. Not the one that is shown in text books. One that shows how to close all circuits from the voltage sources. How do I close the circuit for my batteries.
In the op-amp circuit the ground connection is shown, however I know this connects to some other wire to close the loop for the source of voltage. Where do these wires connect to. In other words where the ground is shown on the an op-amp circuit, what is actually connected to this point :?
The ground is connected at your batteries or power supplies midpoint.
The third picture at http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/Semi/SEMI_8.html might help you.
The whole lecture is at http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/
I often connect op-amp + supply to 12 V , op-amp - supply to 0V and use a voltage divider set at 50% and blocked with a capacitor as "virtual ground"
At the op's output i measure then -6 to +6 V referred to "virtual ground"
or, equivalently and 100% exchangeable 0 to +12V referred to 0V from