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*)I can tell you that if it's a new computer, the problem can be software related/viruses etc.
*)CPU operates at a high temperature mode than allowed so the BIOS will automatically shutdown it. But it depends on the type of motherboard and processor.
*)Any recently installed hardware like RAM's and add-on cards that are not 100% compatible. You've to uninstall them for debugging.
*)In case of old motherboard, it happens because of power supply issues. First you need to check the SMPS, then supply regulators on the motherboard probably FET's,diode etc. Those FET's works on a high frequency mode, so they can be bit costly and need to replace exactly thesame one.
Look into EVENT VIEWER on your pc. It may indicate what the last state of the PC was prior to turning off. When you state that the 'puter restarts, I'm assuming that it shuts down then reboots to the desktop? Likely not a heat issue, but perhaps RAM memory, a BIOS fault condition, power supply voltages not remaining to spec.
Listen to transistor495, lot of good info there. It may an unseen blue screen. Go into control panel-system- system properties-advanced-and then the bottom button which is settings for startup & recovery. Make sure that "automatically restart" is unchecked in the window that opens up. If you end up unchecking it yourself, then wait for a blue screen & note the info contained within. You can google it or post it here. I'll help you out even though this really isn't the place for it (I think?).
I had an issue with an older computer where it had a cheap power supply in it and caused the capacitors on the motherboard to explode and leak. It would only shut down when I had too many things pluged into the USB ports... i replaced the capacitors and it then ran fine.
It could also be software related too tho... Take a look at your capacitors on the motherboard.. if they look swolen or are leaking... its possible to be a problem.