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So you want to check internal blocks of CPU for proper functionality? I think that is difficult. If your ALU is faulty, most of the things you process will give you errorneous results. May be this a check for fualty ALU. But to check each and every section will be difficult.
I would get some benchmarking utility, or a piece of burn-in software. The benchmark should give some error or crash if there is a problem, and burn in software, which is designed to push a processor to the max for an extended period of time to ensure it works all right should also fail with a fault software.
Search for prime95 and sisoft sandra to name a few.