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first semiconductor device(history also0

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I read the vaccume tubes & then semiconductor electronics.But I want know when did the scientists exactly switched from vaccume tubes to semiconductor devices & want to know who is the first man to make & use the first semiconductor device.please, help me with the related sites.
thanking you [/list]


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vaccume tubes / semiconductors

hi there,
i think it was about 1948 when the first transistor was invented, but I'm not sure. here is what I found about it @ http://de.wikipedia.org. It's German, so I will translate it for you as good as I can:

1948 gilt allgemein als das Jahr, in dem der Transistor erfunden wurde. Beteiligt an der Erfindung waren William Shockley, John Bardeen und Walter Brattain, die 1956 den Nobelpreis dafür erhielten. In den 50-er Jahren gab es einen Wettlauf zwischen Röhre und Transistor, in dessen Verlauf die Chancen des Transistors häufig eher skeptisch beurteilt wurden.
Wenn man alle Transistoren in sämtlichen bislang hergestellten Schaltkreisen (Speicher, Prozessoren usw.) zusammenzählt, ist der Transistor inzwischen diejenige technische Funktionseinheit, die je von der Menschheit in den höchsten Gesamtstückzahlen produziert wurde. Laut Gordon Moore, dem Mitbegründer der Firma Intel, wurde allein im Jahr 2002 eine Trillion produziert.

1948 is probably the year, in which the transistor was invented. There have been 3 man working at it: William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattein, all awarded in 1956 with the Nobel-Award. in the 50s there was a competition between vaccume tube and transistor; many people gave the transistor bad chances.
If you start counting every transistor in every ever made circuit (Memorys, processors etc.), the transistor will be the function-unit most made by humans ever. According to Gordon Moore, one of the Intel-founders, there have been about one trillion transistors made in year 2002.

i finally found the site in english, so here is the link:

hope i could help you.
cya sankt-seibel
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