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# Dependent & Independent Sources

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#### Electroenthusiast

##### Active Member
Dependent & Independent Sources

What are the Differences B/W Dependent Voltage & Independent Voltage Sources / Dependent Current & Independent Current Sources.
Examples?

an independent voltage source(VS) is one which supply constant voltage irrespective of variation of other circuit variables while a dependent VS supply vary with variation in other ckt variables.
same holds true for independent/dependent current source.

Are you talking about in a simulation program such as Spice?

Dependent sources have an output the depends upon an isolated control input. You can have voltage-controlled-voltage sources, current-controlled voltage sources, voltage-controlled-current sources, etc. The are idealized devices.

An independent source outputs a fixed voltage or current, independent of any other circuit parameter. An idealized battery is an example.

Are you talking about in a simulation program such as Spice?

Dependent sources have an output the depends upon an isolated control input. You can have voltage-controlled-voltage sources, current-controlled voltage sources, voltage-controlled-current sources, etc. The are idealized devices.

An independent source outputs a fixed voltage or current, independent of any other circuit parameter. An idealized battery is an example.

can you give examples and where they are used?
/ is it just an imaginary assumption, if so why do
you require them in solving network problems?

The can be used when you need to insert a given signal somewhere in the circuit for test purposes. For example when doing closed loop bode or stability analysis in a feedback circuit you may want to inject a known current or voltage somewhere in the loop to determine its frequency or transient response. A voltage-controlled current or voltage source is ideal for this.

I often use the current-controlled voltage source to monitor current anywhere in my circuit when doing Spice analysis. It gives a voltage out proportional to the current through it. This source has zero input impedance so it has no effect on the circuit operation while I'm viewing the current, and the input is isolated from the output so the sense part of the source can be anywhere in the circuit but the output can be always referenced to circuit common.

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Thanks for the information...
I Later Found that they are used to represent some Semiconductor Devices in electronic circuits

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