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THe capacitor initially is uncharged so there is 0V across it. What else has 0V across it? A piece of wire (aka short-circuit). That initial current pulse to charge the cap might be too high if the capacitance is too large.
Current in and inductor cannot change instantly, it only changes gradually (sort of like how capacitor voltage). When you suddenly disconnect current from an inductor the inductor tries to keep the current flowing at the same value (only allowing it to decrease gradually). How does it do this? It generates a huge voltage spike that keeps the current flowing (current will flow anywhere if the voltage is high enough). This voltage spike is damaging.