# Voltage

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#### Hero999

##### Banned
The -v terminal of the battery is often considered to be the referance point 0V. Dual power supply circuits have the referance point taken between the two batteries.

#### gokulakannan

##### New Member
hi i'm a Final year Electrical & Electronic Engineering student like to do a project in Embedded systems i need a sample projects for my reference

#### mybuickskill6979

##### New Member
so the amount of electrons that pass a given point in one second is an amp? and a coulomb? Sweet!!

#### Roff

##### Well-Known Member
mybuickskill6979 said:
so the amount of electrons that pass a given point in one second is an amp? and a coulomb? Sweet!!

An amp is one coulomb per second. The number of electrons in a coulomb is 6.2415*10^18.

#### ericgibbs

##### Well-Known Member
hi srimannarayanakarthik,

Regards
EricG

#### mybuickskill6979

##### New Member
thats alot of electrons. Thanks Ron.

##### Banned
You should try calculating the amount of electron motion that occurs for a thousand watt space heater benig on for 8 hours.

#### ikalogic

##### Member
i like this analogy between hydraulis and electricity

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#### OutToLunch

##### New Member
i don't remember the specifics anymore, but in a system dynamics class in college, we took mechanical systems and translated them to an 'equivalent' electrical circuit and would use that to predict response. i remember having to do a project where the response of a car was found in relation to the tire hitting a bump in the road. The mass translates to inductance, Springs translate to capacitors and the shocks (dashpots) translate to resistors.

#### Hero999

##### Banned
Sounds like LRC circuits and second order differential equations, I was never any good at that the lecturer being crap didn't help much either.

#### gibsonrockin247

##### New Member
Voltage intensifier circuit

I have a question for you guys. I am new here but need help in a controll circuit. I need a dc circuit that starts with 12vdc, I want to step it up to 1000vdc, with less than 10 amps. Is this possible at all? I would like it to be a variable system from 12 -1000 vdc. This is for an automobile Hydrogen system, so it would need to be as small as possible. I can take a regular 12vdc alternator and remove the regulator I get 10 amps 100volts, Not enuff to get enuff hydrogen to operate what the engine needs . It helps in fuel savings but not where I need it to be. It will also needs a pulsing circuit from 0-10 khz varible to tape the resonance of tape water. It would be best if this were a step up voltage circuit. Like 600-700-800-900-1000. Or any varible in the range specified. Like 400-500-600-700-800-. Am I just dreaming or is any range of high voltage possible withoutr the amp? Can I put a choke in the line to knock the amperage out?

#### audioguru

##### Well-Known Member
You are dreaming.
1000V at 10A is a power of 10kW! A car's alternator is only 1kW and for short durations.
Are you going to haul a huge generator around?

#### gibsonrockin247

##### New Member
Lost in thought

I hope not, That is what i was afraid of. What is the most voltage You think I might be able to get out off a regular car alternator and battery system without smoking it.

#### audioguru

##### Well-Known Member
You need lots of POWER.
A little piezo lighter makes a very high voltage, but hardly any current because its power output is low.
The alternator has a max power rating of 1kW for short durations.
The alternator for a huge truck probably has a much higher output power.
Then you need an inverter to stepup the voltage.

The alternator and inverter get hot. The heat is wasted power. The system might waste more power than it produces from hydrogen.

#### gibsonrockin247

##### New Member
Voltage intensifier circuit

I have found a alternator from blue wind that is for a wind generator. I will put out 360 volts at 2500 rpm 15a -40a on the motor. It would be as you were refering to as the big truck alternator. But it really is not enuff yet to get were i need to be. Thanks for the help I will keep going maybe I will fall into it if I keep trying. I can go to that type of alternator but I would like to find a system that doesn't require that I redesign the whole car to get at least a 50% increase in miliage. I look at this as I am driving anyway and If I can increas the milage to an acceptable level the pull on the alternator really doesn't matter. We are at about 20% increase in miliage right now. But if I can ever get to 50% that would be acceptable as a real hydrogen ad on for not very much money. Depending on how much the electronics cost. What is this peizio light you are talking about? Thanks again Gibbs

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#### audioguru

##### Well-Known Member
A piezo lighter is a butane lighter. You push its trigger that clicks as a little hammer hits a piezo crystal which makes a spark with about 10,000V.

I save a lot of gas by not driving much.

#### gibsonrockin247

##### New Member
Hydrogen mess

I agree that is the best idea yet, drive less save fuel. Really! that little lighter puts out 10.000 volts. I wonder how that is done. I have been looking for info on this lighter from some companies and can't seem to find much except they want me to buy lighters. But It is only important if I let it be. Thanks for the info man. gibbs

#### Hero999

##### Banned
When you press the button it compresses a spring until a catch is released firing a metal pellet at a piece of piezo crystal.

#### mneary

##### New Member
Assuming you can find a generator to produce your 10kW of electricity, it will be taking upwards of 20 horsepower from your engine.

#### Hero999

##### Banned
He didn't say how long he wanted 10kW for.

Using a 100W SMPs to charge a large capacitor in 100 seconds could produce 10kW for 1 second.

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