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An LM3914 is a display driver for 10 LEDs and is a DC voltmeter. If you feed a linear ramp into its input and set it in the BAR mode then it will light the LEDs one after the other while leaving earlier ones on.
BUT, it ain't made in a through holes case no more no more but you might find an old one somewhere.
A CD4017 or 74HC4017 is a decodes counter with 10 outputs. It normally counts with only one output on but a bunch of diodes can be added so that it leaves earlier ones on.