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I'm having trouble seeing where the existing antenna is. Are there any conductors attached to or printed onto the inside of the plastic case?
I would like to see the existing antenna to give an educated guess about how much improvement is possible by connecting an external one. An internal antenna might have a gain of around -3 dBi on average, and possibly worse. Using an external antenna, you can shoot for roughly +5 dBi with something good, and suffer only 1 to 2 dB loss in a short cable. So the net signal improvement available might be on the order of 6 dB, which is not large, but still may be noticeable and perhaps worth the effort. I'm guessing that adding 6 dB of signal might be about half a bar on your signal strength indicator. It also might be worthwhile to run a longer cable despite the added losses. Getting some height on your antenna often pays off, especially at these frequencies.
About 7 years ago, I had a similar problem in a new apartment, where the only internet connection I had available, was by using a USB dongle with a SIM card. (I wasn't about to have the apartment wired for cable, as it was only short term and I wasn't concerned about having a TV)
The cell signal was mainly only 1 bar and once in a while, it would hit 2 bars.
There was a spare plastic lamp shade, kinda dish-shaped, left behind by the previous tenant.
I lined it with aluminium foil and used a USB extension cable to allow the dongle to be plugged in, in the center of the shade, then poked around with it near a window - managed to get 5 bars. That's where it lived for around 18 months, until I moved out.
Something like this may work too: