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Have you contacted Intel about suggesting a replacement IC? You're not likley to find a pin compatible replacement so at least part of the circuit is going to have to be redesigned. There are a LOT of micro controllers out there right now, many of which would meet or exceed your needs. It's hard to say where to start.
This family of parts was originally designed for Ford Electronic Engine Control Computers. There is no similar replacement for this part from any manufacturer. I'll bet you could use an FPGA to build a clone -- bone up on that VHDL.
Good Luck with the Content Addressable Memory for the output compare functions.
Intel has ceased to manufacture silicon wafers for our 6" based processes in 2007,Due to this fact Intel(R) is not offering replacements for any of the discontinued parts and does not recommend them for new designs
80C196 is a 16-bit microcontroller with a lot of built-in peripherals but maybe your application doesn't use all of them so you just need to find an equivalent microntroller with just the features you need. Take a look at the Microchip families PIC24F, PIC24H, dsPIC30, dsPIC33. But maybe even a PIC18F may be enough to replace such an old component. Of course you'll have to completely rewrite your software. I hope it was not done with the PLM-96 language!
The most difficult feature to duplicate will be the CAM (Content Addressable Memory) associated with the output compare function. Second on the list would be the high speed input capture. I would not place bets of even modest size on the success of this enterprise, until the redesign and testing of an alternative was complete.
I might volunteer to do this for you if the price is right. I'm guessing the low six figures if the existing code is in assembly language or some variant of PL/M.